Cancer Types and the Future of Cancer Treatment

Our inadequate understanding of intricate cancer biology and the paucity of preclinical models that properly mimic tumor complexity contributes significantly to the high failure rate in clinical oncology studies. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are now extensively utilized, enabling us to objectively assess the model’s capacity to imitate and investigate critical clinical conditions. Consequently, tumor heterogeneity and clonal growth, tumor microenvironment contributions, identification of novel drugs and biomarkers, and drug-resistance mechanisms are all conceivable.

The Cancer and PDX Models Types

According to biomarker studies for predictive and prognostic malignancies in creating personalized cancer treatment, clinical judgment and experience are more important than published clinical data.  Below is a list of the many kinds of cancer.

Gallbladder Cancer

Biliary tumors are rare cancers with extremely severe results. Their rarity makes conducting fair treatment trials difficult. Therefore, new gallbladder cancer trials are urgently required. However, effective biliary cancer PDX models are possible and may advise future high-risk patients.

Head and Neck

For clinical investigations, head and neck cancer pdx models may be imprinted samples at different stages of the illness and retain the genetic features of their human donor. In addition, chemotherapy and radiation may also be utilized for treatment, enabling therapeutic research.

Endometrial Cancer

An EC molecular classification was recently achieved, resulting in a continuously improving EC categorization while enhancing patient treatment by integrating histology findings. Mixed Mullerian cancer PDX models were previously utilized in EC, mainly as a tailored tool for evaluating the effectiveness of new treatments and finding biomarkers for treatment response.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

AML xenograft models are typically transitory and non-transferable. Therefore, they do not produce any symptoms or death. However, because of the danger of blood cancer, since PDX models are permanent, they may be used in clinical trials to examine disease recurrence after a treatment challenge and the effectiveness of new medications in treating drug-resistant malignancies.

Cerebral Cancer

Patient survival in pediatric oncology has improved in several areas in recent decades, but the prognosis for most children with malignant brain tumors remained poor. Juvenile brain cancer PDXs are presently produced into immunocompromised rats or mice by xenografting fresh tissue, freshly acquired cell suspensions, or short-cropped neurospheres.


Prostate Cancer 

Prostate cancer is a complex, diverse disease that presents substantial barriers to drug development and scientific research. As a result, preclinical models, such as patient-derived xenografts (PDX), must be used to assess drugs mainly intended to treat prostate cancer. Unfortunately, prostate cancer PDXs are difficult.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers in young men aged 20-40 and is increasing worldwide. PDX models are generally regarded as the most promising approach to predict medication efficacy before clinical trials. These models may also be used for mechanistic study and preclinical testing of novel testicular cancer therapies.



In translational cancer research, preclinical models are essential, from understanding disease biology to developing novel treatment approaches. PDX models remain the preferred paradigm for preclinical research, despite significant limitations in their capacity to predict clinical outcomes. Consequently, there are ongoing multi-institutional initiatives to create and disseminate these tools to maximize the translation potential of extensive, well-annotated PDX resources. This study analyzes the current state of PDX models and explores potential possibilities for future PDX development.